Semantic Web and Linked Data
This section touches on 3 aspects of the Semantic Web:
Search engines use technology similar to the Semantic Web to facilitate capturing structured data (aka rich snippets) from web pages.
pygeoapi supports this use case via embedding a
schema.org JSON-LD snippet in the HTML encoding,
schema.org ontology is not a formal Semantic Web ontology, it is therefore a bit disconnected from the rest of the Semantic Web
See more information at Search Engine Optimization
Publish spatial data in the Semantic Web
OGC API - Common adopted a number of W3C conventions, which bring OGC APIs closer to the standards of Semantic Web, compared to first generation OGC Web Service (OWS) standards.
Currently, pygeaopi does not aim to be a full implementation of Semantic Web, however it is possible to advertise some aspects of the Semantic Web so the data can be traversed by Semantic Web aware clients.
Use a SPARQL client to query pygeoapi
SPARQL is commonly known as the query language to query triple stores. However you can also use SPARQL to query graphs of linked web resources. The SPARQL client traverses links between the resources to locate the requested triples. Jena ARQ is a command line SPARQL client which is able to run such queries. Jena is quite difficult to set up, although there is a Docker Image available. As an alternative we will use a web-based implementation of the ARQ engine. Navigate to https://demos.isl.ics.forth.gr/sparql-ld-endpoint and replace the query in the textbox with:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
A query to an item returns the item with its geometry:
1 2 3 4 5
Notice that the SPARQL client fails if you hardcode the HTML format.
1 2 3 4 5
JSON-LD as expected by search engines has some challenges for semantic web tools. So how does it work if the format is not hardcoded?
The SPARQL engine negotiates with the endpoint to evaluate which (RDF) encodings are available, and based on the content negotiation
it requests the
JSON_LD encoding via
pygeoapi adopted conventions of the JSON-LD community to annotate JSON as RDF. For features, each property (column in a source table) is annotated by a semantic concept. The related configuration to apply the annotations is managed in the context element of a resource definition
Read more in the pygeoapi documentation.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Proxy to the Semantic Web
Spatial data engineers are generally challenged when importing and visualizing fragments of the semantic web. The number of spatial clients currently supporting SQARQL interaction is limited and requires expert knowledge to use. A group within the pygeoapi community aims to facilitate semantic web access for spatial data engineers by introducing pygeoapi as a proxy between the typical GIS clients and the semantic web.
A new feature is being prepared which introduces a SPARQL provider to pygeoapi. The provider enables to browse the results of a SPARQL query as an OGC API - Features collection.
Congratulations! You can now configure pygeoapi configurations with linked data concepts.